Increased movements of people through travel and trade, social and environmental changes linked to urbanization compounded with a rapid adaptation of microorganisms call for an effective global surveillance and response system as a communicable disease in one country today is the concern of all because Communicable Diseases recognize no borders in this new era whereby physical national borders become bridges to facilitate trade and travel. Epidemics of emerging infectious diseases as exemplified by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndromes (SARS), Avian Influenza A/H5N1, Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1 have potential negative impact not only on human health but also on other socio-economic aspect.
In the 1969 version of the IHR, the three diseases that are required to be reported by States Parties to the World Health Organization, namely chorea, plague and yellow fever are no longer valid. The world requires an updated global system that can rapidly identify and contain public health emergencies and reduce panic and the disruption of trade, travel and society. The IHR 2005 requires World Health Organization (WHO) Member States to assess, develop, strengthen and maintain their country's capacity at a level to meet the minimum core capacity requirements for disease surveillance and response. The specific disease list is now replaced by a broader term of “Public Health Emergency of International Concern” (PHEIC).
Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response assists countries with building an integrated alert and response system for epidemics and other public health emergencies based on strong national public health systems and capacity and an effective international system for coordinated response.


Project Result/Case Study

The second Greater Mekong Subregion-Regional Communicable Diseases Control project (ADB/GMS-CDC2) applies Community-based Communicable Disease Control (CDC) intervention in 90 villages selected from 36 remote communes in 10 provinces of Cambodia: Kampot, Takeo, Kandal, Prey Veng, Svay Rieng, Tbaung Khmum, Kratie, Stung Treng, Ratanakiri and Mondulkiri. 

CDC2 Project is funded by the Asian Development Bank and focuses mainly on the establishment of mechanisms to improve community for capacity for surveillance and response to priority diseases, and promotes community participation to improve family and community health status.

Kaam Samnar krom is one among those 90 villages, having 567 Khmer community households with total population of 2,224 people including 1,207 female, located in Kaam Samnar commune, Leuk Dek district, Kandal province, and lies along the edge of Lower Mekong River, closely adjacent to Ang Yang province of Vietnam, just 1 Km from the border.

Sitting with other village members, Mr. Yann Yorn aged 60 years, Chief of Kaam Samnar krom village recognizes that project offers many benefits to people in the village.


The MOH, through the Department of Communicable Disease Control (CDCD) and the 2nd Health Sector Support Program (HSSP2) has engaged the Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (IPC) to undertake a seroprevalence study in 2015 to measure and describe the extent of a Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) outbreak in Cambodia (Apr-Sep 2012) ascribed to Enterovirus 71 (EV71), persistence in 2015 and to test risk associations of susceptibility.Download

There is only khmer version available for Model Healthy Village Facilitator's book and participant's book.

  • Model Healthy Village facilitator's book Download
  • Model Healthy Village participant's book Download


Profile of Respondents

Among the 3,600 respondents 95% (n=3,424) were female and 5% (n=176) were male. The majority of the HHs respondents were young: 68 % of them being between 18 to 30 years old. 26% of respondents spoke another language other than Khmer. Among the survey respondents 32% were illiterate. Significantly higher proportion (69%) of illiterate respondents was reported in Ratanakiri and Mondulkiri (46%). Majority (75%) of respondents were farmers.


 Age, Sex and Poverty status of household members

In the 3, 600 households there were 18,404 total populations. The average family size was 5.1. The proportion of male and female was found equal among the survey population. Under 5 years population constituted 24% and children under 12 years of age accounted for 41% in the total populations. Overall, 52% of population was married, 45% were single, 3% was widowed/widower and 1% had divorced.

Of the 3,600 HHs interviewed, 804 household (22%) were officially designated as poor and 78% were non poor based on their ID card.

Education Status

The overall level of literacy in survey area was low (49%) compared to CDHS 2010 (77%). Highest percentage of illiterate population was found in Ratanakiri (72%), 58% in Steung Treng and 57% in Mondulkiri. Majority of the educated had just completed primary education (38%), with 12% completed secondary school and 3% with high school level.

Read more: Households Baseline Survey Report